External routing protocol. The BGP Version 4 is the foundation for the operation of the modern-day Internet. There are numerous BGP extensions applied in the course of implementing MPLS VPN, Ipv6 or Multicast VPN.

Bruteforce attack

A technique for cracking passwords or cryptographic keys that involves testing all possible combinations.


An IT system that automates and supports processes on the customer-organization interface in terms of customer acquisition and retention (service). A CRM system can support the operation of, e.g., a marketing, sales or customer service department.

Critical infrastructure

Real and cybernetic systems and its constituent buildings, devices, plants, services crucial to the security of the state and its citizens and aimed at ensuring efficient functioning of public administration, as well as institutions and entrepreneurs.

Captive portal

Captive Portal is a customized WiFi network login page where a user is directed after logging in, and which forces authentication and acceptance of network rules of use.

Comptuer forensics

An IT field that includes security and legal sciences, aimed at providing digital evidence. Its tasks include collection, recovery, analysis and presentation of digital data found on all sorts of carriers, as well as in remote data collection, storage and processing websites and systems.


The technique of multiplexing numerous optical signals within a single fibre-optic line wherein each signal is assigned with a different light wavelength (frequency).

Data Center

A building, room within a building or a group of buildings intended as storage for operating IT infrastructure, such as servers, data storage devices and network infrastructure.

DDoS attack

An attack conducted by a network of infected computers – a so-called botnet – that floods the victim’s servers with a huge number of queries. This results in the server being clogged and no more clients being handled.


A client-server communication protocol utilizing the transmission control protocol (TCP) following the TCP/IP model that enables a two-way FTP-FTP client file transfer.


Defines all technologies processing, collecting and transmitting information in electronic form.

IP (Internet Protocol)

An OSI-model network layer communication protocol (TCP/IP-model internet layer) An Internet protocol is a set of strict rules and procedures that are automatically executed by the devices in order to establish communication and exchange data. This is commonly used on the Internet and in local computer networks.


A type of software with a harmful effect on a computer system or its user. Only software that was developed for malicious purposes and operates against the user’s expectations is dubbed malware. The term ‘malware’ does not cover apps that can cause unintended harm due to some imperfection.

Network exchange point

A physical or logical connection point for the telecommunication networks of telecommunications entrepreneurs or special users that is other than a network terminal point.

NOC (Network Operations Center)

A facility for network monitoring and control or network management via a computer, telecommunication device or satellite network.

Open source

Type of software with its entire source code made public. Many Open-Source solutions provide the users with the possibility to study, modify and further distribute the code. Freeware is developed by a vast and global community of developers, architects, testers and analysts.


A standard applicable wherever the option to add/modify/remove functionalities within a single Java Virtual Machine is required that is without service interruptions. This is encountered, among others, in SDN controllers.


One of the most popular SDN protocols. It enables remote control of the Openflow switch data layer and managing QoS mechanisms.

OST 112

Infrastructure managed by EXATEL that is used by the most important systems responsible for the security of the state, e.g., the 112 emergency number, System of State Registers (contains key data of Polish citizens) or the Central Register of Vehicles and Drivers (CEPiK). Several thousand locations throughout Poland are coupled to this network.


EU directive on payment services that required all Member states to comply with. The main assumptions of the PSD2 directive are increasing consumer security and to better protect them against fraud in terms of non-cash transactions.

POP (Point of Presence)

Point of providing services that is an edge node of a modern telecommunications network.

Polish 5G

A business model covering the development of a common 5G infrastructure in the 700 MHz band. The objective of this initiative is to ensure access to 5G services throughout Poland.

QoS (Quality of Service)

All the features of a telecommunications service that constitute the basis for fulfilling the expressed and satisfied needs of its user.

R&D (research & development)

Activities involving the discovery of new relationships and dependencies between the elements within a given domain, through technique, technologies or methodology improvement and streamlining processes. The outcomes of such efforts include further discoveries and inventions, as well as new hypotheses, concepts and theories.


A European and Japanese consortium within which we conducted the first public-space 5G technology tests in Europe, in 2017.

RTD (Round Trip Delay)

The minimum time required for sending a signal in both directions - from a sender to a recipient and back - after which a message-received confirmation can be sent. RTD is crucial in, among others, the telecommunications industry.

SaaS (Software-as-a-Service)

A form of distributing and obtaining access to software programs where the user gives all control to a provider/administrator. The provider is responsible for management, updating and technical support.

SDN (Software-Defined Networking)

Software-defined networking – a network architecture concept that involves separating an intelligent, i.e., a management and control component, from a network device - and having such a device conduct only tasks involving packet data transmission between ports.

SOC (Security Operations Center)

A highly specialized security centre based on three pillars, namely, the people, technology and processes/procedures. It enables continuous monitoring, detecting threats and analysing the security of IT systems and infrastructure.

SSL (Secure Socket Layer)

A protocol developed in 1994 by Netscape. SSL is a protocol for securing communication over the Internet. It enables encrypting information transmitted between a browser and a server. Its use requires installing an SSL certificate.

SLA (Service Level Agreement)

A contract for the maintenance and systematic improvement of a service quality level agreed on between a client and a service provider, through a continuous cycle covering arrangements, service monitoring, reporting and overview of achieved results.

SRP (State Register System)

A system combining the key Polish registers. Currently, SRP combines six registers: PESEL (National ID Number), Dowodów Osobistych (ID cards), Stanu Cywilnego (Birth, Marital and Death Status), Danych Kontaktowych (Contact Data), Odznaczeń Państwowych (State Decorations) and Centralny Rejestr Sprzeciwów (Central Register of Objections).

Tier 1

Tier 1 defines the group of the largest Internet operators. The fact they have in common is that they do not need to lease any lines from anyone. Lower-tier operators are obliged to pay for the use of lines, transit and all associated services provided by Tier 1 operators. The lowest exchange point with Tier 1 operators is in Frankfurt.

UTM (Unified Threat Management)

UTM – multi-functional firewalls integrated in the form of a single device. Most UTM-class devices offer such functions as a spam filter, network antivirus, intrusion detection, content filtering, router, NAT and other standard network services.


A technique that enables sending speech sounds via the Internet or separate networks utilizing the IP protocol, commonly known as ‘Internet telephony’. Data is transmitted using the IP protocol.


A service that allows to connect to the Internet from anywhere in the world via a virtual, encrypted channel. Its sample applications include connecting remote employees with a corporate network.

WAN (Wide Area Network)

A computer network within an area going beyond a city, country or continent. The largest WAN network is the Internet.

5G Network

An abbreviation for the fifth-generation mobile network. Compared to previous generations, a 5G network is supposed to provide a much higher data transfer rate, almost imperceptible latency and much more stable connections. 5G will enable hooking-up a large number of additional devices to the Internet.

95th percentile method

The method for settling traffic volume. It involves collecting information on the client interface traffic volume across the line every 5 minutes. These measurements are called ‘samples’. Samples are collected and classified as per a fixed formula, at the end of the settlement period.